Aristotle created the concept of the First Mover who itself cannot be moved in Metaphysics; Book XII included in Medieval Philosophy: A Multicultural Reader. Aristotle begins by saying that if there is always something moving without end in a circular motion, then there needs to be something that moves them (31-32). This makes logical sense to me. He further explains that the First Mover is the source of the rotational movement of the planets. Aristotle also asserts his belief in a First Mover by claiming that a mover which has the ability to move without being moved itself by definition is always eternal and good. Thus, it is implied that the First Mover is a god who is in a better state of being because the god possesses constant intelligence (32). I definitely had to reread this part, as I would get lost mid way through the sentence. The Canterbury Tales written by Geoffrey Chaucer, incorporates this concept in “The Knight’s Tale” when Theseus, lord of Athens, explicitly refers to the First Mover in an effort to console Palamon and Emelye who are mourning the death of Arcite many years later (Chaucer, 2987). Theseus explains that there is a noble plan set in place by the First Mover where all things must die, utilizing the life cycle of an oak, and assures the sorrow-filled hearts that each creature dies at the right time (Chaucer, 2994-3017). Theseus likewise describes the First Mover as “stable and eternal” (Chaucer, 3004). Then, Jupiter, king of the gods, is defined as the First Mover (Chaucer, 3035). Therefore, Chaucer expands the idea of the First Mover from the origin of planetary motion to a well-respected and feared deity. This is the direction that I would except after reading about Aristotle’s conceptual First Mover, for an eternal figure with capabilities not possessed by a human beings leads most to think of a god-like figure. Except, it seems that Roman gods like Jupiter and Juno have their flaws and are not always good.

Question #1: Chaucer writes that the month of May wakes up Emelye before the day starts to enjoy its beauty. Also, Arcite feels the need to observe May while in the grove. How strong do you believe is nature’s hold on our actions?

Question #2: Should the Son of God dying by the hands of men be considered a success story?